Editing/Copy editing: Preparing the document for distribution or publication through the following: clarifying meaning, eliminating jargon, polishing language by editing for grammar, usage, spelling, punctuation and other mechanics of style; checking for consistency of mechanics and for internal consistency of facts; inserting head levels and approximate placement of art; editing tables, figures, and lists; ensuring that references in the text are correctly cited in the bibliography; notifying the designer of any unusual production requirements.
Proofreading: Checking proofs or final formatted, edited material for adherence to design and for minor, mechanical errors in copy (such as spelling mistakes or small deviations from style sheet), using standard proof-correction marks; may include comparing the document with earlier versions to ensure corrections have been made, checking the accuracy of running heads, flagging locations of art and page references, verifying computer codes, and inserting page numbers in table of contents and cross-references.
Interpreting: Converting a speaker’s words in one language (the source language) into an equivalent speech in another language (the target language).
- Specialist fields of Interpreting: Simultaneous, Consecutive, Court, Liaison, Whisper.
- Simultaneous interpreting is continuous. Consecutive is stop and start, the interpreter begins only when the speaker has finished the speech or part of it. Court interpreting, the interpreter works with the court and could be simultaneous or consecutive. Liaison interpreting is the most formal form of interpreting, typically during business meetings (telephonic or video conference call), visits of delegations, etc… Whispered interpreting (or chuchotage), it is a form of simultaneous interpreting in which the interpreter does not sit in a booth but in the conference room, next to the delegate who needs the interpreting, and whispers the target language version of the speech in the delegate’s hear.
Translation: Converting a written text in one language (the source language) into an equivalent text in another language (the target language).
Specialist fields of translation :
- Technical translations: Documents of a technical or scientific nature, such as multinational companies, research bodies and government departments.
- Service translation: For organisational purposes, such as corporate publications, business documentation, annual reports, legislation and government departments.
- Media translation: Press material for a variety of newspaper and magazine concerns and as well as government departments.
- Literary translation: Novels, children’s books and non-fiction literature.
- Advertising translation: Newspapers, magazines, radio, television, etc
- Television translation: Television plays, documentary programs.
- Sworn translation: Documents for official or legal purposes.
- Transcreation: The process of adapting a message from one language to another, while maintaining its intent, style, tone and context. The phrase has historically been used by advertising and marketing professionals looking to transfer the meaning of a message into a new language without losing intended meaning.